# 19. URL Route Registrations¶

Generally there are three ways to define rules for the routing system:

1. You can use the flask.Flask.route() decorator.
2. You can use the flask.Flask.add_url_rule() function.
3. You can directly access the underlying Werkzeug routing system which is exposed as flask.Flask.url_map.

Variable parts in the route can be specified with angular brackets (/user/<username>). By default a variable part in the URL accepts any string without a slash however a different converter can be specified as well by using <converter:name>.

Variable parts are passed to the view function as keyword arguments.

The following converters are available:

 string accepts any text without a slash (the default) int accepts integers float like int but for floating point values path like the default but also accepts slashes any matches one of the items provided uuid accepts UUID strings

Custom converters can be defined using flask.Flask.url_map.

Here are some examples:

@app.route('/')
def index():
pass

pass

@app.route('/post/<int:post_id>')
def show_post(post_id):
pass


An important detail to keep in mind is how Flask deals with trailing slashes. The idea is to keep each URL unique so the following rules apply:

1. If a rule ends with a slash and is requested without a slash by the user, the user is automatically redirected to the same page with a trailing slash attached.
2. If a rule does not end with a trailing slash and the user requests the page with a trailing slash, a 404 not found is raised.

This is consistent with how web servers deal with static files. This also makes it possible to use relative link targets safely.

You can also define multiple rules for the same function. They have to be unique however. Defaults can also be specified. Here for example is a definition for a URL that accepts an optional page:

@app.route('/users/', defaults={'page': 1})
@app.route('/users/page/<int:page>')
def show_users(page):
pass


This specifies that /users/ will be the URL for page one and /users/page/N will be the URL for page N.

Here are the parameters that route() and add_url_rule() accept. The only difference is that with the route parameter the view function is defined with the decorator instead of the view_func parameter.

 rule the URL rule as string endpoint the endpoint for the registered URL rule. Flask itself assumes that the name of the view function is the name of the endpoint if not explicitly stated. view_func the function to call when serving a request to the provided endpoint. If this is not provided one can specify the function later by storing it in the view_functions dictionary with the endpoint as key. defaults A dictionary with defaults for this rule. See the example above for how defaults work. subdomain specifies the rule for the subdomain in case subdomain matching is in use. If not specified the default subdomain is assumed. **options the options to be forwarded to the underlying Rule object. A change to Werkzeug is handling of method options. methods is a list of methods this rule should be limited to (GET, POST etc.). By default a rule just listens for GET (and implicitly HEAD). Starting with Flask 0.6, OPTIONS is implicitly added and handled by the standard request handling. They have to be specified as keyword arguments.