Make sure to import all objects from the places the documentation suggests. It is theoretically possible in some situations to import objects from different locations but this is not supported.
MultiDict is a member of the werkzeug module
but internally implemented in a different one.
2.1. WSGI Environment¶
The WSGI environment contains all the information the user request transmits
to the application. It is passed to the WSGI application but you can also
create a WSGI environ dict using the
>>> from werkzeug.test import create_environ >>> environ = create_environ('/foo', 'http://localhost:8080/')
Now we have an environment to play around:
>>> environ['PATH_INFO'] '/foo' >>> environ['SCRIPT_NAME'] '' >>> environ['SERVER_NAME'] 'localhost'
Usually nobody wants to work with the environ directly because it is limited to bytestrings and does not provide any way to access the form data besides parsing that data by hand.
2.2. Enter Request¶
For access to the request data the
Request object is much more fun.
It wraps the environ and provides a read-only access to the data from
>>> from werkzeug.wrappers import Request >>> request = Request(environ)
Now you can access the important variables and Werkzeug will parse them
for you and decode them where it makes sense. The default charset for
requests is set to utf-8 but you can change that by subclassing
>>> request.path u'/foo' >>> request.script_root u'' >>> request.host 'localhost:8080' >>> request.url 'http://localhost:8080/foo'
We can also find out which HTTP method was used for the request:
>>> request.method 'GET'
This way we can also access URL arguments (the query string) and data that was transmitted in a POST/PUT request.
For testing purposes we can create a request object from supplied data
>>> from cStringIO import StringIO >>> data = "name=this+is+encoded+form+data&another_key=another+one" >>> request = Request.from_values(query_string='foo=bar&blah=blafasel', ... content_length=len(data), input_stream=StringIO(data), ... content_type='application/x-www-form-urlencoded', ... method='POST') ... >>> request.method 'POST'
Now we can access the URL parameters easily:
>>> request.args.keys() ['blah', 'foo'] >>> request.args['blah'] u'blafasel'
Same for the supplied form data:
>>> request.form['name'] u'this is encoded form data'
Handling for uploaded files is not much harder as you can see from this example:
def store_file(request): file = request.files.get('my_file') if file: file.save('/where/to/store/the/file.txt') else: handle_the_error()
The files are represented as
FileStorage objects which provide
some common operations to work with them.
Request headers can be accessed by using the
>>> request.headers['Content-Length'] '54' >>> request.headers['Content-Type'] 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded'
The keys for the headers are of course case insensitive.
2.3. Header Parsing¶
There is more. Werkzeug provides convenient access to often used HTTP headers and other request data.
Let’s create a request object with all the data a typical web browser transmits so that we can play with it:
>>> environ = create_environ() >>> environ.update( ... HTTP_USER_AGENT='Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; U; Mac OS X 10.5; en-US; ) Firefox/3.1', ... HTTP_ACCEPT='text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8', ... HTTP_ACCEPT_LANGUAGE='de-at,en-us;q=0.8,en;q=0.5', ... HTTP_ACCEPT_ENCODING='gzip,deflate', ... HTTP_ACCEPT_CHARSET='ISO-8859-1,utf-8;q=0.7,*;q=0.7', ... HTTP_IF_MODIFIED_SINCE='Fri, 20 Feb 2009 10:10:25 GMT', ... HTTP_IF_NONE_MATCH='"e51c9-1e5d-46356dc86c640"', ... HTTP_CACHE_CONTROL='max-age=0' ... ) ... >>> request = Request(environ)
Let’s start with the most useless header: the user agent:
>>> request.user_agent.browser 'firefox' >>> request.user_agent.platform 'macos' >>> request.user_agent.version '3.1' >>> request.user_agent.language 'en-US'
A more useful header is the accept header. With this header the browser informs the web application what mimetypes it can handle and how well. All accept headers are sorted by the quality, the best item being the first:
>>> request.accept_mimetypes.best 'text/html' >>> 'application/xhtml+xml' in request.accept_mimetypes True >>> print request.accept_mimetypes["application/json"] 0.8
The same works for languages:
>>> request.accept_languages.best 'de-at' >>> request.accept_languages.values() ['de-at', 'en-us', 'en']
And of course encodings and charsets:
>>> 'gzip' in request.accept_encodings True >>> request.accept_charsets.best 'ISO-8859-1' >>> 'utf-8' in request.accept_charsets True
Normalization is available, so you can safely use alternative forms to perform containment checking:
>>> 'UTF8' in request.accept_charsets True >>> 'de_AT' in request.accept_languages True
E-tags and other conditional headers are available in parsed form as well:
>>> request.if_modified_since datetime.datetime(2009, 2, 20, 10, 10, 25) >>> request.if_none_match <ETags '"e51c9-1e5d-46356dc86c640"'> >>> request.cache_control <RequestCacheControl 'max-age=0'> >>> request.cache_control.max_age 0 >>> 'e51c9-1e5d-46356dc86c640' in request.if_none_match True
Response objects are the opposite of request objects. They are used to send data back to the client. In reality, response objects are nothing more than glorified WSGI applications.
So what you are doing is not returning the response objects from your WSGI application but calling it as WSGI application inside your WSGI application and returning the return value of that call.
So imagine your standard WSGI “Hello World” application:
def application(environ, start_response): start_response('200 OK', [('Content-Type', 'text/plain')]) return ['Hello World!']
With response objects it would look like this:
from werkzeug.wrappers import Response def application(environ, start_response): response = Response('Hello World!') return response(environ, start_response)
Also, unlike request objects, response objects are designed to be modified. So here is what you can do with them:
>>> from werkzeug.wrappers import Response >>> response = Response("Hello World!") >>> response.headers['content-type'] 'text/plain; charset=utf-8' >>> response.data 'Hello World!' >>> response.headers['content-length'] = len(response.data)
You can modify the status of the response in the same way. Either just the code or provide a message as well:
>>> response.status '200 OK' >>> response.status = '404 Not Found' >>> response.status_code 404 >>> response.status_code = 400 >>> response.status '400 BAD REQUEST'
Also common headers are exposed as attributes or with methods to set / retrieve them:
>>> response.content_length 12 >>> from datetime import datetime >>> response.date = datetime(2009, 2, 20, 17, 42, 51) >>> response.headers['Date'] 'Fri, 20 Feb 2009 17:42:51 GMT'
Because etags can be weak or strong there are methods to set them:
>>> response.set_etag("12345-abcd") >>> response.headers['etag'] '"12345-abcd"' >>> response.get_etag() ('12345-abcd', False) >>> response.set_etag("12345-abcd", weak=True) >>> response.get_etag() ('12345-abcd', True)
Some headers are available as mutable structures. For example most of the Content- headers are sets of values:
>>> response.content_language.add('en-us') >>> response.content_language.add('en') >>> response.headers['Content-Language'] 'en-us, en'
Also here this works in both directions:
>>> response.headers['Content-Language'] = 'de-AT, de' >>> response.content_language HeaderSet(['de-AT', 'de'])
Authentication headers can be set that way as well:
>>> response.www_authenticate.set_basic("My protected resource") >>> response.headers['www-authenticate'] 'Basic realm="My protected resource"'
Cookies can be set as well:
>>> response.set_cookie('name', 'value') >>> response.headers['Set-Cookie'] 'name=value; Path=/' >>> response.set_cookie('name2', 'value2')
If headers appear multiple times you can use the
method to get all values for a header:
>>> response.headers.getlist('Set-Cookie') ['name=value; Path=/', 'name2=value2; Path=/']
Finally if you have set all the conditional values, you can make the
response conditional against a request. Which means that if the request
can assure that it has the information already, no data besides the headers
is sent over the network which saves traffic. For that you should set at
least an etag (which is used for comparison) and the date header and then
make_conditional with the request object.
The response is modified accordingly (status code changed, response body removed, entity headers removed etc.)